Shaper Machine Definition , Types of Shaper Machine

Shaper Machine

The Shaper Machine is a reciprocating type of machine tool intended primarily to produce flat surfaces. These surfaces may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. In general, the shaper can produce any surface composed of straight line elements. Modern Shapers can generate contoured surface. The metal working shaper was developed in the year 1836 by JAMES NASMYTH AN, Englishman

Types of Shaper Machine

Shapers are classified in a number of ways depending upon the general features of design or the purpose for which they are intended. Shaper are classified under the following headings.

According to the type of mechanism used for giving reciprocating motion to the ram:
(a) Crank Type
(b) Geared Type
(c) Hydraulic type

According to the position and travel of ram:
(a) Horizontal type
(b) Vertical type
(c ) Traveling Head type

According to the type of design of the table:
(a) Standard Shaper Machine
(b) Universal Shaper Machine

According to the type of cutting stroke :
(a) Push type
(b) Draw Type

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Crank Shaper Machine

This is the most common type of Shaper Machine in which a single point cutting tool is given a reciprocating motion equal to the length of the stroke desired while the work is clamped in position on an adjustable table. In construction, the crank Shaper Machine employs a crank mechanism to change circular motion of a large gear called “Bull Gear” incorporated in the machine to reciprocating motion of the ram. The bull gear received power either from an individual motor or from an overhead line shaft if it is a belt driven Shaper Machine

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Geared Type Machine

The reciprocating motion of the ram in some type of shaper is effected by means of a rack and pinion. The rack teeth which are cut directly below the ram mesh with a spur gear. The speed and the direction in which the machine will traverse depend on the number of gears in the gear train. This type of shaper is not very widely used.

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Hydraulic Shaper Machine

In a Hydraulic shaper, reciprocating movements of the ram is obtained by hydraulic power. Oil under high pressure is pumped into the operating cylinder fitted with a piston. The end of the piston rod is connected to the ram. The high pressure oil first acts on one side of the piston and then on the other causing the piston to reciprocate and the motion is transmitted to the ram. The piston speed is changed by varying the amount of liquid delivered by the pump. One of the most important advantages of this type of shaper is that the cutting speed and force of the ram drive are constant from the very beginning to the end of the cut. It also offers great flexibility of speed and feed control, eliminates shock and permits slip or slowing up of motion when the cutting tool is overloaded, protecting the parts or the tool from breakage. Another advantage is that the machine does not make any noise and operates very quietly.

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Horizontal Shaper Machine

In a Horizontal Shaper Machine, the ram holding the the tool reciprocates in a horizontal axis. Horizontal Shapers are mainly used to produce flat surfaces

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Vertical Shaper Machine

In a vertical Shaper Machine, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis. In some of the vertical machines provision is made to allow adjustment of the ram to an angle of about 10 degrees from the vertical position. Vertical shapers may be crank driven, Rack driven, screw driven or hydraulic power driven. The work table of a vertical shaper can be given cross, longitudinal, and rotary movement. The tool used on a vertical shaper is entirely different from that used on a horizontal shaper. Vertical Shapers are very convenient for machining internal surfaces, keyways, slots or grooves.Large internal and external gears may also be machined by indexing arrangement of the rotary table. There are vertical shapers which are specially designed for machining internal keyways. They are then called Keyseaters

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Travelling Head Shaper Machine

In a Traveling Shaper Machine, the ram carrying the tool while it reciprocates moves crosswise to give the required feed, heavy and unwieldy jobs which are very difficult to hold on the table of a standard shaper and fed past the tool are held static on the basement of the machine while the ram reciprocates ans upplies the feeding movements.

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Standard or Plain Shaper Machine

A shaper is termed as standard or plain when the table has only two movements, vertical and horizontal, to give the feed. The table may or may not be supported at the outer end.

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Universal Shaper Machine

In a universal shaper, in addition to the two movements provided on the table of a standard shaper the table can be swivelled about an axis parallel to the ram ways and the upper portion of the table can be tilted about a second horizontal axis perpendicular to the first axis. As the word mounted on the table can be adjusted in different planes the machine is most suitable for different types of work and is given the name “Universal”. A universal shaper machine is mostly used in tool room work.

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Push Type Shaper Machine

This is most genera type of shaper used in common practice. The metal is removed when the ram moves away from the column, i.e pushes the work.

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Draw Type Shaper Machine

In a draw shaper Machine, the metal is removed when the ram moves towards the column of the machine, i.e draws the work towards the machine. The tool is set in a reversed direction to that of a standard shaper. The ram is generally supported by an overhead arm which ensures rigidity and eliminates deflection of the tool. in this shaper the cutting pressure acts towards the column which relieves the crossrail and other bearings from excessive loading and allows to take deep cuts. Vibration in these machines is practically eliminated.

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